This map shows areas of seismic risk from high red to low grayish-green. The map is from a report click here to download on seismic design categories in Washington. The map also shows potentially active faults from a separate report click here to download. Earthquakes occur nearly every day in Washington. Most are too small to be felt or cause damage. Large earthquakes are less common but can cause significant damage to the things we count on in everyday life, such as buildings, roads, bridges, dams, and utilities.
in the Earth's crust
Geology - Death Valley National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
Geotechnical engineering , also known as geotechnics , is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. It uses the principles and methods of soil mechanics and rock mechanics for the solution of engineering problems and the design of engineering works. It also relies on knowledge of geology , hydrology , geophysics , and other related sciences. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military , mining , petroleum , coastal , ocean , and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground, both onshore and offshore. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, while geotechnical engineering is a specialty of civil engineering , engineering geology is a specialty of geology : they share the same principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics, but may differ in terms of objects, scale of application, and approaches. The tasks of a geotechnical engineer comprise the investigation of subsurface conditions and materials; the determination of the relevant physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of these materials; the design of earthworks and retaining structures including dams , embankments , sanitary landfills, deposits of hazardous waste , tunnels , and structure foundations ; the monitoring of site conditions, earthwork, and foundation construction; the evaluation of the stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; the assessment of the risks posed by site conditions; and the prediction, prevention, and mitigation of damage caused by natural hazards such as avalanches , mud flows , landslides , rockslides , sinkholes , and volcanic eruptions.
The dating of shallow faults in the Earth's crust.
Boulder, Colo. Topics for articles posted for Geosphere this month include "a tale of five enclaves"; evidence for mantle and Moho in the Baltimore Mafic Complex Maryland, USA ; and the after effects of the Mw 9. Windley; Karel Schulmann Based on outcrop maps and core logs, we report 16 new U-Pb dates in order to reconstruct the stratigraphic framework of the Dananhu-Haerlik arc. These results constrain the ages of the oldest basaltic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Ordovician Huangchaopo Group, which were intruded by granite- granodiorite-diorite plutons in the Late Ordovician to middle Silurian Ma.
In geology , a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movements. Large faults within the Earth 's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Faults may also displace slowly, by aseismic creep. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault.